Testing & Measuring Equipment
Testing Equipments are those electronic instruments that are used for testing different electrical devices. These instruments create a stimulus signal and capture the responses of the device under going test. By doing this the faults in the device can be traced and repaired. The main function of electronic test equipments is to directly convert the analog signal into a digital format. The different types of electronic testing equipments are testers, probes, oscilloscopes, voltmeters etc.
The electronic measurement equipments are those devices that are used to measure and compare the physical properties of various objects like area, angle, humidity, pressure etc. Some of the important measurement equipments are Calibration equipments, Counters, Data loggers, Diagnostic measurement equipments, electronic calculators, meters and gauges, microscopes, timers and weighing scales and balances. The largest manufacturers of testing and measuring equipments are China, India, Taiwan and United Kingdom.
In simple terms calibration equipments can be described as electronic devices that are used to compare and reset the output of an instrument with a known or standard input. This process of comparison is known as calibration. The standard to which the output is compared may have been set by a national or international organization. Calibration equipments are used for various purposes like for measuring turbidity, temperature, pressure, salinity etc. Based on the usage, the various types of calibrators are portable calibrators, pressure calibrators, process calibrators, force calibrators, velocity calibrators and temperature calibrators. On the basis of technology used the different types of calibrators are bench calibrators, signal calibrators, RTD simulators and decade boxes.
Comparator is an electronic instrument that is used to compare two voltages or currents and it switches its output to indicate which one is larger. They can also be described as devices that compare two analog signals and produce a single digital signal. The different types of comparators based on their use are digital comparator, current comparator and data comparator.
Counters are electronic devices that count and display the number of times a particular process or event has occurred generally in relationship to a clock. The counter signals are usually digital in nature and the counting is done in binary form or binary coded digital forms. Counters are used in electronic sensors, ships, aircraft's etc. Counters can be classified on the basis of their application and technology. On the basis of application they are classified as batch counters, microwave counters, pulse counters, radiation counters, frequency counters and impulse counters. According to the technology they are differentiated as digital counters, electronic counters, programmable counters, electromagnetic counters and photoelectric counters.
Data loggers are electronic devices used for measuring and storing analog and digital data. Some data loggers are small battery powered devices having a microprocessor, data storage and a sensor. But modern data loggers are mini digital computers, which take in data input and present the output in digital format. They also convert voltages or currents to meteorological variables, record the results in memory and transmit them on a computer through a telephone line or radio signal. The various types of data loggers based on their applications are:
The diagnostic equipments include many types of electronic testing and measuring devices that are used to diagnose and check various activities in a human body like blood pressure, temperature of the body, weight of the body, X-rays, electrical activity of the heart and brain etc. These diagnostic equipments have become a necessity for diagnosis of various diseases. According to the various functions performed by these equipments, they are differentiated as
» Blood Pressure Monitors | » CT Scanners | » ECG Monitors | » EEG Monitors | » Electronic Stethoscopes | » Electronic Thermometers | » MRI Machines | » Proctoscopes | » Sphygmomanometers | » X-ray Machines
Electronic calculators are devices used for performing mathematical calculations. These devices are generally used for solving less complex problems that do not require a computer. The modern electronic calculators use thermionic valves, transistors and integrated circuits.
The important parts of modern electronic calculators are power source (battery or solar panel), electronic circuitry, display (made of LED lights or liquid crystal) and a keypad. Advanced calculators also have memory. Most of the calculators are designed to support problems related to trigonometry, statistics and other mathematical functions. Some calculators can also display graphics and include features of computer algebra systems. The calculators are commonly used by students, teachers, engineers, accountants and businessmen. The different types of calculators depending on their functions are financial calculators, graphing calculators, desktop calculators, printer calculators and scientific calculators.
Laboratory generators are electrical testing equipments that are used in various laboratory applications. They can be used for testing a device by generating electrical waveforms, controlling the frequency, width and high- low levels of the pulse and some generators can also produce electrical signals for testing various devices. These generators are used in laboratories for various purposes like designing, testing and repairing electrical and electronic devices. Laboratory generators are generally differentiated on the basis of their applications as function generators, pulse generators, sweep generators and signal generator.
Meters are measurement devices that are used to measure various properties of matter and environment like electricity, sound, light, relative humidity, temperature and linear, non linear, mass or volumetric rate of flow of a liquid or gas. Some of the meters are also used to measure the speed of an object or entity. The different types of meters based on their functioning are:
Gauges are devices that are used to measure dimensions, height, distance and capacity. The various types of gauges based on their usage are:Temperature Gauges, Bore Gauges, Test Gauges, Strain Gauges, Vibration Gauges, Level Gauges, Height Gauges.
A microscope is an optical device used for viewing objects that are very small and can not be seen by naked eye. The microscopes are very useful tools and are used in scientific researches. All researches in biology, medicine and other researches are carried out with the help of microscopes. Basically the microscope magnifies very small objects with the help of a magnifying glass. Microscopes are classified on the basis of their usage as;
Oscilloscopes are electronic measuring instruments, which create a visible two-dimensional graph of an electrical signal. Oscilloscopes are very important devices and are often used by people involved in designing and repairing electronic equipment.Oscilloscopes can be classified on the basis of technology used as:
An analog oscilloscope directly applies voltage on the electron beam moving across the screen and this voltage traces the waveform on the screen by deflecting the beam up and down. The digital oscilloscope takes a sample of this waveform and converts it to analog signal using ADC (analog to digital converter). The different types of digital oscilloscopes are digital phosphor oscilloscopes, digital sampling oscilloscopes and digital storage oscilloscopes. According to the usage, the different types of oscilloscopes are mixed signal oscilloscopes, portable oscilloscopes, real-time oscilloscopes, sampling oscilloscopes and vectorscopes.
Probes are electronic measurement instruments that are designed for measuring currents in low-voltage AC and DC circuit. They are used for various purposes like for measuring voltage drops, for sensing temperature at different depths in rivers, lakes and streams, for diagnosis of various diseases, measuring logic levels in digital circuits and for testing semiconductors and circuit boards. Probes are of many types depending upon the function they perform like current probes, temperature probes, test probes and ultrasonic probes. On the basis of technology, they are differentiated as ultrasonic probes, bare board probes, differential probes, Kelvin probes, IC probes and RF probes.
Sensors are electronic measurement devices that are used for detecting changes in temperature, pressure, loudness or other physical properties and convert them into an electronic signal that can be easily recorded. After the conversion of physical parameter into an electronic signal, it can easily be put into a computer or microprocessor for analysis and display.The main features of a good sensor are that they are sensitive to the property being measured and insensitive to any other property, measurement recorded does not get influenced by the sensor and the output signal of a sensor is proportional to the value of the property being measured.The sensors are generally used in domestic appliances, medical equipment, industrial control systems, air-conditioning systems, aircraft, satellites and toys. There are many types of sensors used for a variety of applications like:
» Analytical Sensors | » Chemical Sensors | » Electrical Sensors & Monitors | » Entry Sensors | » Environmental Sensors | » Fingerprint Sensors | » Flow Sensors | » Force Sensors | » Image Sensors | » Laser Sensors | » Photoelectric Sensors | » Position & Velocity Sensors | » Pressure Sensors | » Proximity Sensors | » Temperature Sensors | » Thermal Sensors | » Vibration Sensors | » pH Sensors
Testers are electronic devices used for measuring amperage, voltage and resistance. The various types of testers are electrical testers, semiconductor testers and test chambers.
Timer is a special clock designed for controlling a series of events or processes. It is an automatic time measurement device that controls time at regular intervals. Timers can be differentiated as:
Timers by Application
Timers by Technology
By application the different types of timers are camera timers, process timers, relay timers, sequence timers and sports timers. According to the technology the various types of timers are analog timers, digital timers, photoelectric timers, pneumatic timers, programmable timers, high resolution timers etc.